Critical Thinking Master Student Preferred Learning Aids: An Experimental Study
AbstractCase Analysis is not new in the realm of learning, use of learning aids and assessment. Critical Thinking requires product design/course, paper completion, and research/citations in support of the student statements and specific parameters of the paper. Teaching and learning theories (inductive and deductive) and critical thinking are the benchmarks in determining the success of teaching techniques in a course. The deductive method includes a preset assessment. The “Table of Contents” structures student learning. A student’s critical thinking becomes self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored and self-corrective. Textbooks and lectures are often barriers to learning for many students. A study, of three online Master student cohort groups, was designed to test for (no) preferences of student course aids with respect to critical thinking, learning and assessment. The aids included the text, sample report paper, subject handouts, specific end of course paper preset table of contents, and group work. A survey questionnaire was administered to the cohort groups of Master of Business Administration candidates. A sample of 65 students were surveyed and 53 students responded. The course delivery format was an online setting only. Chi Square Goodness of Fit Testing suggested that a preset Table of Contents (a list or in the shape of a tree diagram) for the course assessments, was most preferred by the responders. The five course aids (in student preferred rank order) are:Preset table of contents/tree flow diagramRubric/sample reportSubtopic handoutsStudent sharing/group workTextbook readingsThere was a statistically significant difference in student learning aid preferences at alpha a priori .05 percent. Many responders reported that the course aid, table of contents (tree diagram), would generally be helpful in their “follow on” courses.
Akbulut, Y. (2007). Effects of multimedia annotations on incidental vocabulary and reading
comprehension of advanced learners of English as a foreign language, Instructional
Science, (pp. 499-517).
Ardac, D., & Unal, S. (2008). Does the amount of on-screen text influence student learning from a multimedia-based instructional unit? Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, (pp. 75-88).
Bain, K., Basson, S.A., Faisman, A., Kanevsky, D. (2005). Accessibility, transcription, and access everywhere, IBM Systems Journal, (pp. 589-603). Retreived December 12, 2005, from http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/443/bain.pdf
Baker, J. (Summer, 1989). The recruitment and retention of minority and disadvantaged allied health students. Journal of Allied Health, (pp. 389-401).
Bell, C.W. (October 7, 1988). Training tomorrow’s workers. (Hospital Labor Shortage) (editoral). Modern Healthcare, (p. 88).
Brockett, R. G. (2002). Conceptions of self-directing learning (Book Review). Adult Education Quarterly, (pp. 155-156).
Brown-West, A. P. (Summer, 1991). Influences of career choice among allied health students. Journal of Allied Health, (pp. 181-189).
Buzzell, C.H. (1993). Tech prep, special needs, and the Perkins Act. Vocational Education Journal, (pp. 4-5).
Carnevale, A. P., Gaines, L. J., Villet, J., & Holland, S. L. (1990). Training partnerships: Linking employers and providers. Alexandria, Virginia: American Society for Training and Development, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Employment and Training Administration.
Chizmar, J.F., & Walbert, M.S. (1999). Web-based learning environments guided by principles of good teaching practice. Journal of Economic Education, (pp. 248-264).
Chun, D. M. (2001). L2 reading on the web: Strategies for accessing information in hypermedia.
Computer Assisted Language Learning, (pp. 367-403).
Chun, D.C., Payne, J.S. (2004). What makes students click: working memory and look-up behavior. System (pp. 481–504).
Dagget, Dr. W. R. (1991). The future of employment and implications for education.
Dole, E. (October, 1989). Preparing the work force of the future. Vocational Educational Journal, (pp. 18-20).
Fauser, J.J. (1992). Accreditation of allied health education: Assessing for educational effectiveness. The Journal of the American Medical Association, (p.1123).
Garrison, D.R. (2003). Self-directed learning and distance education, In M.G. Moore & W. Anderson (eds.), Handbook of Distance Education (pp. 161-168). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Graff, M. (2003). Individual Differences in Sense of Classroom Community in a Blended Learning Environment. Journal of Educational Media, Vol. 28, Nos. 2–3
Grow, G. (1991). Teaching learners to be self-directed: A stage approach. Adult Education Quarterly, (pp. 125-149).
Gupta, G.C. & Konrad, T.R. (1992). Allied health education in rural health professional shortage areas of the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, (pp. 268, 1127).
Hannafin, M.J., Hill, J.R., Oliver, K., Glazer, E., & Sharma, P. (2003). Cognitive and learning factors in Web-based distance learning environments. In M.G. Moore, & W.G. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of distance education (pp. 245-260). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Harrison, R. (1978). How to design and conduct self-directed learning experiences. Group and Organization Studies, (pp. 149-167).
Hill, J.R., & Hannafin, M.J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: The resurgence of resource-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, (pp. 37-52).
McMillan, J. H., & Reed, D.F. (1994). At-risk students and resiliency: Factors contributing to academic success. The Clearing House, (p. 137).
Merriam, S.B. (2001). Andragogy and self-directed learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education,(pp. 3-14).
Merriam, S.B. & Caffarella, R.S. (1999). Learning in Adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ozono, S. & Ito, H. (2003). Logical connectives as catalysts for interactive L2 reading. System, (pp. 283-297).
Schroder, C.C. (1993). New students – new learning styles. Change, (p. 21).
Song, L. (2005). Adult learners’ self-directed learning in online environments: Process, personal attribute, and context. Unpublished Dissertation, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
Song, L., Singleton, E.S., Hill, J.R., & Koh, M.H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet & Higher Education, (pp. 59-70).
Thomas, Mary (2003) Assessment and Learner Performance in Problem Based Learning (PBL). Number 1. Vol 1. Singapore: Temaskey Polytechnic
Tozcu, A. & Coady, J. (2004). Successful learning of frequent vocabulary through CALL also benefits reading comprehension and speed. Computer assisted language learning, (pp. 473-495).
Wald, Mike (2008) Learning Through Multimedia: Automatic Speech Recognition Enhancing Accessibility and Interaction. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, (pp. 215-233).
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).