The Hula Valley (Israel): From Nature to Anthropogenic Management, A Review


  • Moshe Gophen Migal-Scientific Research Institute POB 831 Kiryat Shmone Israel (11016)



Hula, Valley, Lake, Swamps, Settling, History, Drainage, Agriculture


The long history, from Stone-Age period until present, of settling in the HulaValleyis reviewed. This Valley land, 17.7X103 ha, was mostly covered by swamps and old Lake Hula. Population size of settlers in the Valle and in close vicinity was very small. The swamps in the Valley were mostly (app 85%) covered by Cyperus papyrus vegetation. Three major headwaters discharges were fluxed through the swampy area into Lake Hula from which the Jordan river outflow continued downstream into Lake Kinneret. Anthropogenic usage of the Hula Valley hydrological and vegetation (Papyrus for mats production and grass for cattle grazing) resources were poorly implemented. During the 1950`s of the 20th century the swamps and the Hula Lake were drained and the entire valley land was converted into agricultural utilization. The significance of that environmental modification is discussed.


Karmon, Y. 1956. The Northern Huleh Valley, Its Natural and Cultural Landscape; The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.; 108 p. (in Hebrew).

Dimentman, Ch. H.J. Bromely and F. D. Por, 1992. Lake Hula, Reconstruction of the Fauna and Hydrobiology of a lost Lake. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jeusalem. 170 p.

Ritter, C. 1850. Die Erdkunde von Asien. Bd. viii. 2. Abt. 2. Abschnitt. 1. Abt. : Palastina und Syrien. 2. Aufl. Berlin. 140 p.

Tristram, H. B. 1866. The Land of Israel. A journal of Travels in Palestine. London, 320 p.

Neuman, J. 1955. On the water balance of Lake Huleh and the Huleh Swamps 194243 – 194647; Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 5, No.1, 1955.Isrel Meteorological Service Series D., Contribution No. 5. pp 49-58.

Ben-Porath, A., and Minsker, N. 1996. The Hula Drainage: What we learn from the History of 160 Years? Maim VeHashkaya, Vol. 361. pp 42-48, (in Hebrew).

Gophen,M., M. Meron, V. Orlov-Levin, & Y. Tsipris , (2014),Seasonal and spatial distribution of N & P substances in the Hula Valley (Israel) subterranean. Open Journal of Modern Hydrology; 4, 121- 131.

Gophen, M. 2015a. Management Improvement of the Agmon Wetland System (Hula Valley, Israel) aimed at Enhancement of Bird Population and Kinneret Protection.Open Journal of Modern Hydrology,2015,5, 1-9.

Gophen, M. 2015b. Nitrogen and Phosphorus dynamics in the Shallow Lake Agmon (Hula Valley, Israel), Open Journal of Ecology, 2015, 5, 55-65.

Gophen, M. 2016. Chemical, Hydrological and Climatological Properties of Lake Agmon, Hula Valley (Israel), (1994- 2006). Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 2016, 6, 8-18.