Zimbabwean female participation in physics: The use of drawings in documenting students' images of scientists

Anna Gudyanga

Abstract


The study investigated the Zimbabwean Advanced Level female adolescent students’ images of a scientist and the influence of female students perceived images on their participation in the subject. Three high schools that were offering physics at A’ level in the Midlands Province were targeted. Four female students eighteen years and above:  three doing mathematics and physics and one doing physics without mathematics were purposively chosen. The data generating instruments were classroom observation and drawing. Findings show that two out of four female students drew stereotypical image of a male scientist and listed Eurocentric names of male scientists The other two female students, gave African names to the scientists that they drew and this may suggest that scientists are not only Eurocentric but can also be Afrocentric. Their diagrams might denote a positive physics perception which may have resulted in the construction of a positive identity formation regarding physics. The positive physics identity in turn may indicate that the female participants were more attuned to continue studying physics.  However, the female students did not seem to perceive scientists as ordinary people but as famous inventive people they encountered in their science text books.

 

 


Keywords


Identity formation: physics identity: drawing: scientist and participation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Azzawi, A. (2007). Physical Optics: Principles and Practices. London: Taylor and Francis Group.

Babbie, E. (2001). Th practice of social research (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Wardsworth.

Babbie, E., & Mouton, J. (2001). The practice of social research. South Africa: Oxford University Press. HY.

Bandura, A., & Bussey, K. (2004). On Broadening the Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociostructural Scope of Theorizing About Gender Development and Functioning: Comment on Martin, Ruble, and Szkrybalo Psychological Bulletin, 130(5), 691-701.

Barnes, C., & Kelly, T. (2007). East Coast rural Horizons Young Learners draw their future. In N. D. Lange, C. Mitchell & J. Stuart (Eds.), Putting people in the picture: Visual Methodologies for social change (pp. 221-228). Rottendam: Sense Publishers.

Bem, S. L. (1983). Gender Schema Theory and Its Implications for Child Development: Raising Gender-aschematic Children in a Gender-schematic Society. Journal Of Women in Culture and Society, 8(4).

Bodzin, A., & Gehringer, M. (2001). Breaking Sience Stereotypes: Can Meeting Actual Scientists Change Students’ perceptions of Scientists? . Science and Children, 36-41.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

Brotman, J. S., & Moore, F. M. (2008). Girls and science: A review of four themes in the science education literature. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(9), 971-1002.

Campbell, A., Shirley, L., & Candy, J. (2004). A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour. Developmental Science, 7(1), 1-9.

Chambers, D. W. (1983). Stereotype images of the scientist: The draw a scientist test. Science Education, 67(2), 255-265.

Connell, R. W. (2005). Musculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Dawes, A., & Biersteker, L. (2011). Early Childhood Development. In A. B. Nsamenang & T. M. S. Tchombe (Eds.), Hndbook of African Educational Theories and Practices: A Generative Teacher Education Curriculum (pp. 111-122). Bamenda, North West Region (Cameroon): Human Development Resource Centre (HDRC).

Demirbas, M. (2009). The relationships between the scientist perception and scientific attitudes of science teacher candidates in Turkey: A case study. Scientific Research and Essay, 4(6), 565-576.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). The discipline and practice of qualitative research. Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2, 1-28.

Farland-Smith, D. (2009). How does culture shape students’ perceptions of scientists? Cross National comparative study of American and Chinese elementary students. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 21(4), 23-42.

Finson, K., & Pedersen, J. E. (2009). Drawings as visual data: Processes and procedures for educational research. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Finson, K. D. (2002). Drawing a scientist: What we do and do not know after fifty years of drawings. School Science and Mathematics, 102, 335-345.

Franklin, L. (2012). Gender. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Galvaan, R. (2007). Getting the Picture.The process of Participation. In N. D. Lange, C. Mitchell & J. Stuart (Eds.), Putting people in the picture: Visual methodologies of social change (pp. 153-162). Rotterdam Sense Publishers

Gardner, H. (1980). Artful scribbles: The significance of children’s drawings. New York: Basic Books.

Hazari, Z., Sonnert, G., Sadler, P. M., & Shanahan, M. C. (2010). Connecting high school physics experiences, outcome expectations, physics identity and physics career choice: A gender study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(8), 978-1003.

Horowtz, L. (2010). Pschemas, Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Research. Psychotherapy Research, 4(1), 1-19.

Kalu, I. (2005). Classroom interaction in physics lessons, relative to students’ sex. AfricanJournal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 9(1), 55-66.

Knight, G. P., Bernal, M. E., Garza, C. A., & Cota, M. K. (1993). A Social Cognitive Modelof the Development of an Ethnic Identity and Ethnically-Based Behaviours. In M. E. Bernal & G. P. Knight (Eds.), Ethnic Identity: Formationand Transmission amoung Hispanic and other Minorities. New York: State University of New York Press.

Knoblauch, H., Baer, A., Laurier, E., Petschke, S., & Schnettler, B. (2008). Visual Analysis. New Developments in the Interpretative Analysis of Video and Photography. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 9(3), 14.

Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (2003). Handbook of Self Identity. New York: Giulford Press.

Lips, H. M. (2008). Sex and Gender: An Introduction, . New York: McGraw-Hill.

Love, J. G. (1994). The hermeneutics of transcript analysis. The Qualitative Report, (1). http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/BackIssues/QR2-1/love.html

Martin, C. L., & Ruble, D. (2004). Children’s Search for Gender Cues: Cognitive Perspectives on Gender Development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(2), 67-70.

McCullough, L. (2004). Gender , Context and Physics Assessment. Journal of International Women's Studies, 5(4), 20-30.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California, United States of America: Sage Publications, Inc.

Miller, P. H., Blessing, J. S., & Schwartz, S. (2006). Gender Differences in High‐school Students’ Views about Science. International Journal of Science Education, 28(4), 363-381.

Mitchell, C., Theron, L., Smith, A., & Stuart, J. (2011). Picturing Research: An Introduction. In L. Theron, C. Mitchell, A. Smith & J. Stuart (Eds.), Picturing Research: Drawing as visual methodology. Rotterden: Sense Publishers.

Muropa, B. C., Kusure, L. P., Makwerere, D., Kasowe, R., & Muropa, Z. (2013). Unhu/Ubuntu and Its Relationship with Civics and Citizenship Education. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 4(4), 658-661.

Murphy, P., & Whitelegg, E. (2006). Girls in the physics classroom: a review of the research into the participation of girls in physics 1-56. Retrieved from http://oro.open.ac.uk/6499/1/Girls_and_Physics_Report.pdf website:

Mwetulundila, P. N. (2011). Why girls are'nt fully participating in science and Mathematics in Namibia Retrieved from Retrieved from http://www.nied.edu.na/publications/journals/journal11/journal%204PDF website:

Nafukho, F. M. (2006). Ubuntu Worldview:A Traditional African view of adult learning in the workplace. Advances in Developing Human Resourses, 8(3), 408-415.

Nafukho, F. M., Amutabi, M. N., & Otunga, R. N. (2005). Foundations of Adult Learning in Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Pearson/Unesco.

National Gender Policy. (2004). National Gender Policy 2004. Harare: Government Printers.

National Gender Policy. (2013). National Gender Policy of Zimbabwe (2013-2017). Harare: Government Printers.

Nieuwenhuis, J. (2007). Qualitative research design and data gathering techniches. In K. Maree (Ed.), First steps in research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

Ong, M. (2005). Body Projects of Young Women of Color in Physics: Intersections of Gender, Race, and Science. Social Problems, 52(4), 593-617.

Paechter, C. (2003). Learning masculinities and femininities: Power/knowledge and legitimate peripheral participation. Women’s Studies International Forum, 26(6), 541-552.

Prusak, A. (2003). Prusak, A. (2003). The nature and role of cultural factors in the learning of mathematics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation (in Hebrew). University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Riessman, C. K. (2006). Narrative Analysis In V. Jupp (Ed.), The Sage Dictionary of Social Research Methods (pp. 186-189). London, United Kingdom SAGE Publications Ltd

Riley, T., & Hawe, P. (2005). Researching practice: the methodological case for narrative inquiry. Health Education Research, 20(2), 226-236.

Roychoudhury, A., Tippins, D. J., & Nichols, S. E. (1995). Gender-Inclusive Science Teaching: A Feminist-Constructivist Approach. Jounal of Rresearch in Science Teaching, 32(9), 897-924.

Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15(1), 85-109.

Scantlebury, K., & Baker, D. (2007). Gender Issues in Science Education Research: Remembering where the difference lies. In K. A. Sandra & G. L. Norman (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Science Education. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Schilling, J. (2006). On the pragmatics of qualitative assessment: Designing the process for content analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 28-37.

Schmitt, B. H., Leclerc, H. F., & Dubé-Rioux, L. (1981). Sex Typing and Consumer Behaviour: A Test of Gender Schema Theory. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(1), 122-128.

Smit, B., & Fritz, E. (2008). Understanding teacher identity from a symbolic interactionist perspective: two ethnographic narratives. South African Journal of Education, 28, 91-101.

Smith, D. (1987). The Truth that Never Hurts. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Steinke, J., Lapinski, M., Crocker, N., Zietsman-Thomas, A., Williams, Y., Higdon, S., & Kuchibhotla, S. (2007). Assessing media influences on middle school-aged children’s perceptions of women in science and engineering using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test (DAST). Science Communication, 29, 35-64.

Sternberg, R. J. (1993). What is rhe relationship of gender to biology and environment?: An evolutionary model of how what you answer depends on just what you ask. In A. E. Beall & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of gender. New York: Guiford Press.

Stuart, J. (2007). Drawings and transformation in the health arena. In N. D. Lange, C. Mitchell & J. Stuart (Eds.), Putting people in the picture: Visual methodologies for social change. Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Symington, D., & Spurling, H. (1990). The 'draw a scientist test': Interpreting the data. Research in Science and Technological Education, 8, 75-77.

Weber, S. (2005). Visual Images in Research. In J. G. Knowles & L. C. Ardra (Eds.), Handbook of the Arts in Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wenger, E. (2010). Conceptual Tools for CoPs as Social Learning Systems: Boundaries, Identity, Trajectories and Participation. In C. Blackmore (Ed.), Social Learning Systems and Communities of Practice (pp. 125-143). London, United Kingdom: Springer

Zhang, Y., & Wildemuth, B. M. (2009). Qualitative analysis of content. Retrieved from School of Information, University of Texas at Austin: http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~yanz/Content_analysis.pdf on 20/12/2012 website:

Zohar, A., & Bronshtein, B. (2005). Physics teachers' knowledge and beliefs regarding girls' low participation rates in advanced physics classes. International Journal of Science Education, 27(1), 61-77.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/rss.v2i1.74

Refbacks



.............................................................................................................................

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please send your doc file to support@socialsciencejournal.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters. Please note that documents uploaded by yourself are reviewed more quickly than replies by e-mail.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add  this domain socialsciencejournal.org in your email safe list.

...............................................................................................................................

Review of Social Sciences, ISSN 2378-8569,  (Print), ISSN 2378-8550 (Online)